بررسی روش های تخلیص و پالایش سوخت بیودیزل با تأکید بر فرایندهای جداسازی غشایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله علمی ترویجی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد مهندسی مکانیک بیوسیستم، گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی فنی کشاورزی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

3 مربی گروه مهندسی فن‌آوری صنایع غذایی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

4 دانشیار گروه مهندسی فن‌آوری صنایع غذایی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران

چکیده

به­دلیل تقاضای روزافزون برای سوخت­های پاک و مشکلات زیست­محیطی ناشی از سوخت‌های فسیلی، به‌تازگی استفاده از سوخت­های زیستی نوین همچون بیودیزل، بیوگاز و بیواتانول اهمیت زیادی پیدا کرده است. بیودیزل­ها­­ از جمله سوخت­های زیستی­ تجدیدپذیر و پاک‌اند که به‌دلیل خواص فیزیکی­ شیمیایی مشابه با دیزل­های نفتی، به­عنوان جایگزین آنها در سراسر جهان مطرح شده­اند. به هر حال، در فرایند تولید بعد از واکنش ترنس‌ استری فیکاسیون، محصول بیودیزل خام باید پالایش و تخلیص شود. اخیراً فرایندهای غشایی مانند ریزپالایش و فراپالایش به­عنوان روشی نوین و چشم­انداز برای پالایش و تخلیص بیودیزل­­ در زمینه­های کاربردی متعددی نظیر صمغ­زدایی و آب­زدایی روغن، جداسازی محصولات جانبی گلیسرول و آب، ناخالصی­های صابون، روغن­های واکنش ­نداده و اضافه­های کاتالیست­، پالایش پساب­های مراحل شستشوی بیودیزل و راکتورهای غشایی برای واکنش­های ترانس استری فیکاسیون ناهمگن مورد آزمون و ارزیابی قرار گرفته­اند. لذا در این تحقیق، روش­های مرسوم پالایش بیودیزل مانند شستشوی مرطوب و خشک همچنین فواید و معایب­شان مرور خواهند شد و بر کاربرد فناوری­های نوین و محیط­زیست‌پسند جداسازی غشایی، تاکید و فرایندهای مربوط به آن برای تولید، پالایش و تخلیص بیودیزل، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار خواهند گرفت.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


[1] M. Hasheminejad, M. Tabatabaei, Y. Mansourpanah, A. Javani, Upstream and downstream strategies to economize biodiesel production, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 102, 461-468, 2011.

[2] A. Kargari, N. Takht Ravanchi, Carbon dioxide: capturing and utilization, In: Liu, G. (ed.) Greenhouse gases-capturing, utilization and reduction. InTech, Rijeka, Croatia. 2012.

[3] S. Sanaeepur, H. Sanaeepur, A. Kargari, M. H. Habibi, Renewable energies: climate-change mitigation and international climate policy, International Journal of Sustainable Energy, Vol. 33, pp. 203–2012, 2014.

[4] A. Noureddin, M. M. A.  Shirazi, J. Tofeily, P. Kazemi, E. Motaee, A. Kargari, M. Mostafaei, M. Akia, A. Karout, R. Jaber, T. Hamieh, M. Tabatabaei, Accelerated decantation of biodiesel-glycerol mixtures: optimization of a critical stage in biodiesel biorefinery, Separation and Purification Technology, 132, pp. 272–280, 2014.

[5] Y. C. Sharma, B. Singh, S. N.  Upadhyay, Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review, Fuel, Vol. 87, pp. 2355–2373, 2008.

[6] Z. Helwani, M. R. Othman, N. Aziz, W. Fernando, J. Kim, Technologies for production of biodiesel focusing on green catalytic techniques: a review, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 90, pp. 1502–1514, 2009.

[7] D. Y. C. Leung, X. Wu, M. Leung, A review on biodiesel production using catalyzed transestrification, Applied Energy, Vol. 87, pp. 1083–1095, 2010.

[8] M. M. A. Shirazi, A. Kargari, M. Tabatabaei, M. Akia, M. Barkhi, M. J. A. Shirazi, Acceleration of biodiesel-glycerol decantation through NaCl-assisted gravitational settling: a strategy to economize biodiesel production, Bioresource Technology, Vol. 134, pp. 401–406, 2013a.

[9] B. L. Salvi, K. A. Subramanian, N. L. Panwar, Alternative fuels for transportation vehicles: a technical review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 25, pp. 404–419, 2013.

[10] E. Rajasekar, S. Selvi, Review of combustion characteristics of CI engines fueled with biodiesel, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 35, pp. 390–399, 2014.

[11] M. Hajjaria, M. Tabatabaeia, M. Aghbashlo, H. Ghanavatia, A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 72, pp. 445–464, 2017.

[12] A. Demirbas, Progress and recent trends in biodiesel fuels, Energy Conversion and Management, Vol. 50, pp. 14–34, 2009.

[13] B. S. Chauhan, N. Kumar, H. M. Cho, H. C. Lim, A study on the performance and emission of a diesel engine fueled with karanja biodiesel and its blends, Energy, Vol. 56, pp. 1–7, 2013.

[14] I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A. Abdul Aziz, Biodiesel separation and purification: a review, Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, pp. 437–443, 2011.

[15] I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A. R. Abdul Aziz, N. M. Sulaiman, Refining technologies for the purification of crude biodiesel, Applied Energy, Vol. 88, pp. 4239–4251, 2011b.

[16] I. M. Atadashi, M. K. Aroua, A. R. Abdul Aziz, N. M. Sulaiman, The effects of catalysts in biodiesel production: a review, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 19, pp. 14–26, 2013.

[17] A. Talebian-Kiakalaieh, N. A. Amin, H. Mazaheri, A review on novel processes of biodiesel production from waste cooking oil, Applied Energy, Vol. 104, pp. 683–710, 2013.

[18] M. M. A. Shirazi, A. Kargari, M. J. Shirazi, Direct contact membrane distillation for seawater desalination, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 49, pp. 368–375, 2012.

[19] Y. C. Sharma, B. Singh, Development of biodiesel: current scenario, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13, pp. 1646–1651, 2009.

[20] G. Cayli, S. Kusefoglu, Increased yields in biodiesel production from used cooking oils by a two steps process: comparison with one step process by using TGA, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 89, pp. 118–122, 2008.

[21] M. Takht Ravanchi, T. Kaghazchi, A. Kargari, Application of membrane separation processes in petrochemical industry: a review, Desalination, Vol. 235, pp. 199–244, 2009.

[22] O. Hosseinkhani, A. Kargari, H. Sanaeepour, Facilitated transport of CO S-EPDM ionomer membrane, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 469, pp. 151–161, 2014.

[23] E. Mirtalebi, M. M. A. Shirazi, A. Kargari, M. Tabatabei, S. Ramakrishna, Assessment of atomic force and scanning electron microscopes for characterization of commercial and electrospun nylon membranes for coke removal from wastewater, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 52, pp. 6611–6619, 2014.

[24] M. M. A. Shirazi, A. Kargari, M. Tabatabaei, Sweeping gas membrane distillation (SGMD) as an alternative for integration of bioethanol processing: study on a commercial membrane and operating parameters, Chemical Engineering Communications, Vol. 202, pp. 457–466, 2015.

[25] P. Kazemi, M. Peydayesh, A. Bandegi, T. Mohammadi, O. Bakhtiari, Pertraction of methylene blue using a mixture of D2EHPA/M2EHPA and sesame oil as a liquid membrane, Chemical Papers, Vol. 67, pp. 722–729, 2013.

[26] S. S. Madaeni, M. E. Aalami-Aleagha, P. Daraei, Preparation and characterization of metallic membrane using wire arc spraying, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 320, pp. 541–548, 2008.

[27] S. Mohammadi, A. Kargari, H. Sanaeepour, K. Abbassian, A. Najafi, E. Mofarrah, Phenol removal from industrial wastewaters: a short review, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 53, No. 8, pp. 2215–2234, 2015.

[28] W. J. Lau, A. F. Ismail, Polymeric nanofiltration membranes for textile dye wastewater treatment: preparation, performance evaluation, transport modelling, and fouling control–a review, Desalination, 245, 321–348, 2009.

[29]Khulbe, K.C., Feng, C. & Matsuura, T. The art of surface modification of synthetic polymeric membranes, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 115, pp. 855–895, 2010.

[30] J. Kim, B. Van der Bruggen, The use of nanoparticles in polymeric and ceramic membrane structures: review of manufacturing procedures and performance improvement for water treatment, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 158, pp. 2335–2349, 2010.

[31] C. Feng, K. C. Khulbe, T. Matsuura, R. Farnood, A. F. Ismail, Recent progress in zeolite/zeotype membranes, Journal of Membrane Science and Research, Vol. 1, pp. 49–72, 2015.

[32] W. N. W. Salleh, A. F. Ismail, Carbon membranes for gas separation processes: recent progress and future perspective, Journal of Membrane Science and Research, Vol. 1, pp. 2–15, 2015.

[33] M. Shirazi, S. Bazgir, M. M. Shirazi, S. Ramakrishna, Coalescing filtration of oily wastewaters: characterization and application of thermal treated electrospun polystyrene filters, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 51, pp. 5974–5986, 201.

[34] M. M. Shirazi, A. Kargari, M. Bazgir, Tabatabaei, M. J. Shirazi, M. S. Abdullah, T. Matsuura, A. F. Ismail, Characterization of electrospun polystyrene membrane for treatment of biodiesel’s water-washing effluent using atomic force microscopy, Desalination, Vol. 329, pp. 1–8, 2013b.

[35] K. P. Lee, T. C. Arnot, D. Mattia, A review of reverse osmosis membrane materials for desalination development to date and future potential, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 370, pp. 1–22, 2011.

[36] M. Shirazi, A. Kargari, D. Bastani, L. Fatehi, Production of drinking water from seawater using membrane distillation (MD) alternative: direct contact MD and sweeping gas MD approaches, Desalination and Water Treatment, Vol. 52, pp. 2372–2381, 2014.

[37] S. H. Shuit, Y. T. Ong, K. T. Lee, B. Subhash, S. H. Tan, Membrane technology as a promising alternative in biodiesel production: a review, Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 30, pp. 1364–1380, 2012.

[38] M. Rezakazemi, A. Ebadi Amooghin, Montazer-M. M. Rahmati, A. F. Ismail, T. Matsuura, State of the art membrane based CO separation using mixed matrix membranes (MMMs): an overview on current status and future directions, Progress in Polymer Science, Vol. 39, pp. 817–861, 2014.

[39] P. Andric, A. S. Meye, P. A. Jensen, K. Dam-Johnsen, Reactor design for minimizing product inhibition during enzymatic lignocellulose hydrolysis. II. Quantification of inhibition and suitability of membrane reactors, Biotechnology Advances, Vol. 28, pp. 407–425, 2010.

[40] H. Sanaeepour, O. Hosseinkhani, A. Kargari, A. Ebadi Amooghin, A. Raisi, Mathematical modeling of a time-dependent extractive membrane bioreactor for denitrification of drinking water, Desalination, Vol. 289, pp. 58–65, 2012.

[41] G. M. Rios, M. P. Belleville, D. Paolucci, J. Sanchez, Progress in enzymatic membrane reactors–a review, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 242, pp. 189-196, 2004.

[42] S. Uemiya, Brief review of steam reforming using a metal membrane reactor. Topics in Catalysis, Vol. 29, pp. 79–84, 2004.

[43] Y. Wang, X. Wang, Y. Liu, S. Ou, Y. Tan, S. Tang, Refining of biodiesel by ceramic membrane separation, Fuel Processing Technology, Vol. 90, pp. 422–427, 2009.

[44] M. C. S. Gomes, N. C. Pereira, S. T. Davantel de Barros, Separation of biodiesel and glycerol using ceramic membranes, Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 352, pp. 271–276, 2010.

[45] M. J. Alves, S. M. Nascimento, I. G. Pereira, M. I. Martins, Biodiesel purification using micro and ultrafiltration membranes, Renewable Energy, Vol. 58, pp. 15–20, 2013.

[46] J. Saleh, A. Y. Trembly, M. A. Dube, Glycerol removal from biodiesel using membrane separation technology, Fuel, Vol. 89, pp. 2260–2266, 2010.

[47]Gomes, M.C.S., Arroyo, P.A. & Pereira, N.C. Influence of acidified water addition on the biodiesel and glycerol separation through membrane technology. Journal of Membrane Science, 431, 28–36, 2013.

[48]Atadashi IM, Aroua MK, Abdul Aziz AR, Sulaiman NMN. High quality biodiesel obtained through membrane technology. J Membr Sci,421–422:154–64, 2012.

[49] W. Xu L. J. Gao, S. C. Wang, G. M. Xiao, Biodiesel production from soybean oil in a membrane reactor over hydrotalcite based catalyst. an optimization study, Energy Fuel, Vol. 27, pp. 6738–42, 2013.

[50]W. Xu, L. J. Gao, S. C. Wang, G. M. Xiao, Biodiesel production in a membrane reactor using MCM-41 supported solid acid catalyst, Bioresour Technol, Vol. 159, pp. 286–91, 2014.

[51] L. H. Cheng, Y. F. Cheng, S. Y. Yen, J. Chen, Ultrafiltration of triglyceride from biodiesel using the phase diagram of oil–FAME–MeOH, J Membr Sci, Vol. 330, pp. 156–65, 2009.

[52] I. Reyes, G. Ciudad, M. Misra, A. Mohanty, D. Jeison, D. Navia, Novel sequential batch membrane reactor to increase fatty acid methyl esters quality at low methanol to oil molar ratio, Chem Eng J, Vol. 197, pp. 459–67, 2012.

[53] P. Cao, M. A. Dubé, A. Y. Tremblay, Methanol recycling in the production of biodiesel in a membrane reactor, Fuel, Vol. 87, pp. 825–33, 2008.

[54] M. A. Dubé, A. Y. Tremblay, J. Liu, Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor, Bioresour Technol, Vol. 98, pp. 639–47, 2007.

[55] S. Baroutian, M. K. Aroua, A. A. Raman, N. M. Sulaiman, A packed bed membrane reactor for production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst, Bioresour Technol, Vol. 102, pp. 1095–102, 2011.

[56] M. Safieddin Ardebili, B. Ghobadian, G. Najafi, A. Chegeni, Biodiesel production potential from edible oilseeds in Iran, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 15, pp. 3041–4, 2011.

[57] M. Hajjari, M. Tabatabaei, M. Aghbashlo, H. Ghanavati, A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 72, pp. 445–464, 2017.